Budget is a blue print of future course of action and activities. Budget means expressing…
Integrated or Integral Accounting System
Integrated Accounts is the name given to a system of accounting, whereby cost and financial accounts are kept in the same set of books.
Obviously, then there will be no separate sets of books for Costing and Financial records. Integrated accounts provide or meet out fully the information requirement for Costing as well as for Financial Accounts. For Costing it provides information useful for ascertaining the Cost of each product, job, process, operation of any other identifiable activity and for carrying necessary analysis. Integrated accounts provide relevant information which is necessary for preparing profit and loss account and the balance sheets as per the requirement of law and also helps in exercising effective control over the liabilities and assets of its business.
Non-Integrated Accounting System
Non-integrated Accounting System – is a system of accounting under which separate ledgers are maintained for cost and financial accounts by Accountants. Under such a system the cost accounts restricts itself to recording only those transactions which relate to the product or service being provided. Hence items of expenses which have a bearing with sales or, production or for that matter any other items which are under the factory management are the ones dealt with in such accounts. This leads to the exclusion of certain expenses like interest and, bad debts and revenue/income from ‘other than the sale of product or service’. A special feature of the non-integrated system of accounts is its ability to deal with notional expenses like rent or interest on capital tied up in the stock. The accounting of notional rent facilitates comparisons amongst factories (some owned and some rented). Similarly, recognition of interest on capital tied up in stock could help make the stores and works managers aware of the money being blocked because of holding stock.