Financial AccountingCost AccountingManagement Accounting
The process of analysing the business transactions under the heads of debit and credit and recording them in the Journal is called Journalising. An entry made in the journal is called a ‘Journal Entry’.
1.2. Posting (to Ledger)
The process of transferring the entries recorded in the journal or subsidiary books to the respective accounts opened in the ledger is called Posting. In other words, posting means grouping of all the transactions relating to a particular ledger at one place. It is necessary to post all the journal entries into various accounts in the ledger because posting helps us to know the net effect of various transactions during a given period on a particular account.
1.3. Balancing (Ledger)
Balance is the difference between the total debits and the total credits of an account. When posting is done, many accounts may have entries on their debit side as well as credit side. The net result of such debits and credits in an account is the balance.
Balancing means the writing of the difference between the amount columns of the two sides in the lighter (smaller total) side, so that the grand totals of the two sides become equal.
1.4. Trial Balance (Ledger Balance Summary)
Trial balance is a statement which shows debit balances and credit balances of all accounts in the ledger. Since, every debit should have a corresponding credit as per the rules of double entry system, the total of the debit balances and credit balances should tally (agree). In case, there is a difference, one has to check the correctness of the balances brought forward from the respective accounts. Trial balance can be prepared in any date provided accounts are balanced.
1.5. Final Reports
The final accounts of business concern generally include two parts. The first part is Trading and Profit and Loss Account. This is prepared to find out the net result of the business. The second part is Balance Sheet which is prepared to know the financial position of the business. However manufacturing concerns, will prepare a Manufacturing Account prior to the preparation of trading account, to find out cost of production.
1.5.1. Trading Account
Trading means buying and selling. The trading account shows the result of buying and selling of goods. Trading account used for trading and manufacturing company. Where non-traders or manufacturers doesn’t require this report, unless specific process taken by them under their business.
1.5.2. Profit & Loss A/c
After calculating the gross profit or gross loss the next step is to prepare the profit and loss account. To earn net profit a trader has to incur many expenses apart from those spent for purchases and manufacturing of goods. If such expenses are less than gross profit, the result will be net profit. When total of all these expenses are more than gross profit the result will be net loss.
1.5.3. Balance Sheet
This forms the second part of the final accounts. It is a statement showing the financial position of a business. Balance sheet is prepared by taking up all personal accounts and real accounts (assets and properties) together with the net result obtained from profit and loss account. On the left hand side of the statement, the liabilities and capital are shown. On the right hand side, all the assets are shown. Balance sheet is not an account but it is a statement prepared from the ledger balances. So we should not prefix the accounts with the words ‘To’ and ‘By’.
Balance sheet is defined as ‘a statement which sets out the assets and liabilities of a business firm and which serves to ascertain the financial position of the same on any particular date’.Share This